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Examines one of the most significant and characteristic features of modern medicine - specialization - in historical and comparative context. This title traces the origins of modern medical specialization to 1830s Paris and examines its spread to Germany, Britain, and the US., This wide-ranging book is the first to examine one of the most significant and characteristic features of modern medicine - specialization - in historical and comparative context. Based on research in three languages, it traces the origins of modern medical specialization to 1830s Paris and examines its spread to Germany, Britain, and the US, showing how it evolved from an outgrowth of academic teaching and research in the 19th century into the dominant mode of medical practice by the middle of the 20th. Taking account of the parallels and differences in national developments, the book shows the international links among the nations' medical systems as well as the independent influences of local political and social conditions in the move toward specialization. An epilogue takes the story up to the twenty-first century, where problems of specialization merge into the larger crisis of health care which affects most western nations today., Introduction ; PART I: THE EMERGENCE OF MEDICAL SPECIALIZATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY ; 1. The Rise of Specialties in Early Nineteenth-Century Paris ; 2. Specialization and Its Opponents in London ; 3. Specialization in the German-Speaking World ; 4. The Rise of American Specialties ; PART II: REGULATING AND STANDARDIZING SPECIALIST PRACTICE, 1890-1950 ; 5. Regulating Specialists in National Medical Directories ; 6. Regulating Specialists in Germany ; 7. Regulating Specialists the American Way ; 8. The French Style of Regulating Specialists ; 9. Regulating Specialists in the British Manner ; PART III: MEDICAL SPECIALTIES IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE ; 10. From Divisions of Medicine to Specialties ; 11. Separating, Combining, and Competition ; GENERAL CONCLUSIONS ; Epilogue: Specialists and Generalists in the Era of Biomedicine ; Appendices ; Notes, Without exaggeration, it can be said that this rich book is an important landmark and will becomes a standard reference in historical research and curriculum. Weisz's book is an exemplar of analytical description and historical argument, and it is richly speckled with examples. Divide and Conquer reveals rich, uncharted territory. It is a great pleasure to read, evocative, and splendidly detailed. Medical History, Vol 50