Modern (16Th-21St Centuries)

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  • The Crisis of Modern Times: Perspectives from The Review of Politics, 1939-1962 (The Review of Politics Series)

    Karton Kapak
    In the 1940s and 1950s The Review of Politics, under the dynamic leadership of Waldemar Gurian, emerged as one of the leading journals of political and social theory in the United States. This volume celebrates that legacy by bringing together classic essays by a remarkable group of American and European émigré intellectuals, among them Jacques Maritain, Hannah Arendt, Josef Pieper, Eric Voegelin, and Yves Simon. For these writers, the emergence of new dictatorial regimes in Germany and Russia and the looming threat of another, even more devastating, European war demanded that one rethink the reigning philosophical perspectives of the time. In their view, the western world had lost sight of its founding principles. Individually and collectively, they maintained that the West could be saved only if its leaders embraced the idea that society should be governed by moral standards and a commitment to human dignity.Since the first issue appeared in 1939, The Review of Politics has influenced generations of political theorists. To complement these essays A. James McAdams has written an introduction that discusses the history of the journal and reflects on the contributions of these influential figures. He underscores the continuing relevance of these essays in assessing contemporary issues.“The essays contained in this volume demonstrate why the Review of Politics is a national treasure. From Jacques Maritain and Yves Simon to Hannah Arendt and Leo Strauss, it has consistently attracted writers of the highest quality to think about the deepest problems of politics and the twentieth century. The themes covered in this collection range from totalitarianism and nihilism to the value of education and the dignity of the individual. Their probity and intelligence show why the Review of Politics has remained the premier journal for serious students of political philosophy.” —Steven B. Smith, Alfred Cowles Professor of Political Science, Yale University  “The Review of Politics has been essential reading for students of political philosophy and politics for more than two generations, including among its contributors internationally renowned scholars whose works are both enormously influential and increasingly look to be contemporary expressions of perennial wisdom. To make seminal essays of this remarkable journal easily accessible, with more to come in future volumes, is a great service to students of political science at every level.” —Timothy Fuller, Lloyd E. Worner Distinguished Service Professor, Colorado College
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  • London Labour and the London Poor (Wordsworth Classics of World Literature)

    Karton Kapak
    With an Introduction by Rosemary O'Day. London Labour and the London Poor is a masterpiece of personal inquiry and social observation. It is the classic account of life below the margins in the greatest Metropolis in the world and a compelling portrait of the habits, tastes, amusements, appearance, speech, humour, earnings and opinions of the labouring poor at the time of the Great Exhibition. In scope, depth and detail it remains unrivalled. Mayhew takes us into the abyss, into a world without fixed employment where skills are declining and insecurity mounting, a world of criminality, pauperism and vice, of unorthodox personal relations and fluid families, a world from which regularity is absent and prosperity has departed. Making sense of this environment required curiosity, imagination and a novelist s eye for detail, and Henry Mayhew poss­essed all three. No previous writer had succeeded in presenting the poor through their own stories and in their own words, and in this undertaking Mayhew rivals his contemporary Dickens. To pass from one to the other, writes one authority, is to cross sides of the same street.
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  • A Brief Introduction to Modern Arabic Literature

    Karton Kapak
    This short book offers a unique overview of modern Arabic literature, focusing on developments over the last fifty years and providing a guide to the literary landscape, indicating the major landmarks in the shape of authors, ideas, and debates.This is the second of two titles published to launch a new series offering insight into Arabic advances in science and culture. Aimed at the general reader, the titles are illustrated and contain glossaries, indices, and suggestions for further reading.David Tresilian has taught at Columbia University and the American University in Cairo. He has been at the American University of Paris since 1999.
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  • Pure Society: From Darwin to Hitler

    Sert Kapak
    Amid the eulogies and celebrations commemorating the bicentenary of Charles Darwin’s birth, the darker side of evolutionary theory should not be forgotten. In The Pure Society, André Pichot, one of France’s foremost specialists in the history of science, excavates the underside of the Darwinian legacy, where the notions of ‘race’ and heredity became powerful tools of malign political agendas and instruments of social oppression.Pichot examines the relationship between science, politics and ideology through an analysis of specific cases: from Nazism and the concentration camps to the various eugenicist research programmes launched or financed by eminent scientific organizations.Racist eugenic ideas were once prevalent among the scientific community, despite a patent lack of supporting evidence. As today’s scientists and writers applaud the advance of science, the egregious mistakes made along the way are too often forgotten. Now, with the mapping of the human genome and rapid advances in gene therapies, Pichot warns that biologists are increasingly emboldened to venture into the realms of public policy and politics. If moral philosophers abandon these fields, it is all too possible that the lights of a misguided science will resurrect the dream of a ‘pure society’.
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  • The Voyage of the Beagle (Wordsworth Classics of World Literature)

    Karton Kapak
    Charles Darwin's travels around the world as an independent naturalist on HMS Beagle between 1831 and 1836 impressed upon him a sense of the natural world's beauty and sublimity which language could barely capture. Words, he said, were inadequate to convey to those who have not visited the inter-tropical regions, the sensation of delight which the mind experiences'. Yet in a travel journal which takes the reader from the coasts and interiors of South America to South Sea Islands, Darwin's descriptive powers are constantly challenged, but never once overcome. In addition, The Voyage of the Beagle displays Darwin's powerful, speculative mind at work, posing searching questions about the complex relation between the Earth's structure, animal forms, anthropology and the origins of life itself.
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  • Life under Pressure: Mortality and Living Standards in Europe and Asia, 1700-1900 (Eurasian Population and Family History)

    Karton Kapak
    This highly original book -- the first in a series analyzing historical population behavior in Europe and Asia -- pioneers a new approach to the comparative analysis of societies in the past. Using techniques of event history analysis, the authors examine 100,000 life histories in 100 rural communities in Western Europe and Asia to analyze the demographic response to social and economic pressures. In doing so they challenge the accepted Eurocentric Malthusian view of population processes and demonstrate that population behavior has not been as uniform as previously thought -- that it has often been determined by human agency, particularly social structure and cultural practice.The authors examine the complex relationship between human behavior and social and economic environment, analyzing age, gender, family, kinship, social class and social organization, climate, food prices, and real wages to compare mortality responses to adversity. Their research at the individual, household, and community levels challenges the previously accepted characterizations of social and economic behavior in Europe and Asia in the past. The originality of the analysis as well as the geographic breadth and historical depth of the data make Life Under Pressure a significant advance in the field of historical demography. Its findings will be of interest to scholars in economics, environmental studies, demography, history, and sociology as well as the general reader interested in these subjects.
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  • 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War

    Sert Kapak
    This history of the foundational war in the Arab-Israeli conflict is groundbreaking, objective, and deeply revisionist. A riveting account of the military engagements, it also focuses on the war's political dimensions. Benny Morris probes the motives and aims of the protagonists on the basis of newly opened Israeli and Western documentation. The Arab side—where the archives are still closed—is illuminated with the help of intelligence and diplomatic materials. Morris stresses the jihadi character of the two-stage Arab assault on the Jewish community in Palestine. Throughout, he examines the dialectic between the war's military and political developments and highlights the military impetus in the creation of the refugee problem, which was a by-product of the disintegration of Palestinian Arab society. The book thoroughly investigates the role of the Great Powers—Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union—in shaping the conflict and its tentative termination in 1949. Morris looks both at high politics and general staff decision-making processes and at the nitty-gritty of combat in the successive battles that resulted in the emergence of the State of Israel and the humiliation of the Arab world, a humiliation that underlies the continued Arab antagonism toward Israel.
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  • Kashmir: The Case for Freedom

    Karton Kapak
    Kashmir is one of the most protracted and bloody occupations in the world—and one of the most ignored. Under an Indian military rule that, at half a million strong, exceeds the total number of US forces in Iraq and Afghanistan, freedom of speech is non-existent, and human- rights abuses and atrocities are routinely visited on its Muslim-majority population. In the last two decades alone, over seventy thousand people have died. Ignored by its own corrupt politicians, abandoned by Pakistan and the West, which refuses to bring pressure to bear on its regional ally, India, the Kashmiri people’s ongoing quest for justice and self- determination continues to be brutally suppressed. Exploring the causes and consequences of the occupation, Kashmir: The Case for Freedom is a passionate call for the end of occupation, and for the right of self- determination for the Kashmiri people.
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  • After Suez: Adrift in the American Century

    Sert Kapak
    Fifty years after Antony Eden's fateful decision to take on the Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, veteran Guardian journalist Martin Woollacott brings to life the arguments, personalities and events surrounding the crisis, and follows its disastrous legacy. He draws on four decades of foreign affairs reporting to show how it changed the Middle East, and the world. More than anything else Suez exposed with brutal clarity that Britain cannot pursue any policy in the world without the support of America. Woollacott's richly fascinating book shows both how Suez led to where we are today, and how parlously Blair and Bush have failed to learn its lessons.
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  • The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-Century Science (Dibner Institute Studies in the History of Science and Technology)

    The contributions of Kantian thought to modern mathematics, mathematical logic, and the foundations of mathematics are now widely acknowledged by scholars. As the essays in this volume show, the general development of modern scientific thought--including the physical sciences, the life sciences, and mathematics--can be viewed as an evolution from Kant through Poincaré to Einstein and the logical positivists and beyond. Focusing on nineteenth-century science, the essays--by historians of philosophy, science, and mathematics--trace the multiple intellectual transformations that have led from Kant's original scientific situation to the scientific problems of the twentieth century.The book examines Kant's influence on five strands of nineteenth-century scientific thought: Naturphilosophie and the effect of German Romanticism (especially Goethe) on biology; Fries's philosophy of science; Helmholtz's rejection of Naturphilosophie and Romanticism; neo-Kantianism and its return to "methodological" concerns in natural science and academic philosophy; and Poincaré and his reflections on scientific epistemology. The essays give a nuanced picture of Kant's legacy to nineteenth-century thinkers and of the rich interaction between philosophical ideas and discoveries in the natural and mathematical sciences during this period. They point to the ways that the scientific developments of the nineteenth century link Kant's thought to the science of the twentieth century.Contributors:Frederick Beiser, Robert DiSalle, Janet Folina, Michael Friedman, Jeremy Gray, Frederick Gregory, Michael Heidelberger, Timothy Lenoir, Jesper Lützen, Alfred Nordmann, Helmut Pulte, Robert Richards, Alan Richardson
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  • Science as Public Culture: Chemistry and Enlightenment in Britain, 1760-1820

    Karton Kapak
    Science as Public Culture joins a growing number of recent studies examining science as a practical activity in specific social settings. Professor Golinski considers the development of chemistry in Britain in the period from 1760 to 1820, and relates it to the rise and subsequent eclipse of forms of civic life characteristic of the European Enlightenment. Within this framework the careers of prominent chemists such as William Cullen, Joseph Black, Joseph Priestly, Thomas Beddoes, and Humphry Davy are interpreted in a new light. The major discoveries of the time, including nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and the electrical decomposition of water, are set against the background of alternative ways of constructing science as a public enterprise. The book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the relations between scientific activity and processes of social and political change in a period of great transformations in chemistry and in the conditions of public life.
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  • The Cambridge Introduction to The Nineteenth-Century American Novel (Cambridge Introductions to Literature)

    Karton Kapak
    Stowe, Hawthorne, Melville, and Twain: these are just a few of the world-class novelists of nineteenth-century America. The nineteenth-century American novel was a highly fluid form, constantly evolving in response to the turbulent events of the period and emerging as a key component in American identity, growth, expansion and the Civil War. Gregg Crane tells the story of the American novel from its beginnings in the early republic to the end of the nineteenth century. Treating the famous and many less well-known works, Crane discusses the genre's major figures, themes and developments. He analyses the different types of American fiction - romance, sentimental fiction, and the realist novel - in detail, while the historical context is explained in relation to how novelists explored the changing world around them. This comprehensive and stimulating introduction will enhance students' experience of reading and studying the whole canon of American fiction.
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  • What the Industrial Revolution Did for Us

    Sert Kapak
    The latest in the popular What theDid For Us series of books, What the Industrial Revolution Did For Us is a journey back in time, giving the reader an insight into how British life was transformed between 1750 and 1830, and how it shaped the world we live in today. So what did the Industrial Revolution do for us? Without the huge advances in science, engineering and medicine and the cast of extraordinarily colourful inventors and scientists who revolutionised the way we think, our modern world would be very different. We would be without vaccinations against contagious diseases and have no anaesthetics for surgery. The industrial revolution also gave birth to our national obsession with tea drinking, the mass production of crockery for the house-proud newly emerging Middle Classes and the transformation of clothing worn by the ordinary man and woman. As well as huge leaps in the evolution of machinery and manufacturing, our transport system was completely overhauled as the first ever steam trains emerged, roads were drastically improved, and canal mania took over Britain. The great industrial cities burgeoned and London became the international power it still is today. From the quacks advertising their potions to the new Middle Classes to the great innovators and entrepreneurs such as Robert Stephenson, James Watt and Josiah Wedgwood, What the Industrial Revolution Did For Us takes us right to the heart of the excitement of this revolutionary age. This book and the BBC television series it accompanies takes us back in time in the eyes of the eighteenth century tourist embracing the newness and invention of this incredible era. Contents: Introduction by Dan Cruickshank Chapter 1: A Potent Brew Chapter 1 looks at the remarkable discoveries that, in just 100 years, created the modern global economy and much of the world in which we live. It tells the story of coal and iron, but also of tea, the invention of the toaster and how Kew Gardens came to be formed. Chapter 2: New Lives: New Landscapes How industrialisation changed the face of modern Britain with the development of machines that took work out of the home and into factories. Chapter 3: Steaming Along We travel through the longest tunnels, over the highest bridges and in the first ever steam trains to explore the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the way we get from A to B. Chapter 4: The Lure of London From the architecture of London to the development of shopping and the start of the modern consumer society. Chapter 5: A Remedy for Quacks Up until the mid 18th century, you had a better chance of survival if you chose not to visit a doctor. But these rather grim facts of life and death were about to change. The Industrial Revolution brought the hope that technology and progress might produce a world without disease and suffering. Modern Medicine covers everything from anaesthetic to Scurvy, vaccines to madness. Chapter 6: Cannon-Fire This chapter focuses on the developments taking place in warfare and weapons during this turbulent period.
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  • Transcending Capitalism: Visions of a New Society in Modern American Thought

    Transcending Capitalism explains why many influential midcentury American social theorists came to believe it was no longer meaningful to describe modern Western society as "capitalist," but instead preferred alternative terms such as "postcapitalist," "postindustrial," or "technological." Considering the discussion today of capitalism and its global triumph, it is important to understand why a prior generation of social theorists imagined the future of advanced societies not in a fixed capitalist form but in some course of development leading beyond capitalism.Howard Brick locates this postcapitalist vision within a long history of social theory and ideology. He challenges the common view that American thought and culture utterly succumbed in the 1940s to a conservative cold war consensus that put aside the reform ideology and social theory of the early twentieth century. Rather, expectations of the shift to a new social economy persisted and cannot be disregarded as one of the elements contributing to the revival of dissenting thought and practice in the 1960s.Rooted in a politics of social liberalism, this vision held influence for roughly a half century, from its interwar origins until the right turn in American political culture during the 1970s and 1980s. In offering a historically based understanding of American postcapitalist thought, Brick also presents some current possibilities for reinvigorating critical social thought that explores transitional developments beyond capitalism.
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  • Churchill as Peacemaker (Woodrow Wilson Center Press)

    Karton Kapak
    Winston Churchill had an acute appreciation of what belongs to war and what belongs to peace. We tend to remember his resistance to Nazi tyranny during the Second World War and his actions as a man of war. In this book, scholars from the United States, Great Britain, and South Africa examine his other actions and comments, those that reflect the primary focus of Churchill's long career: his attempts to keep and restore peace throughout the world, from Queen Victoria's little wars to the Cold War.
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  • Religion in Modern Islamic Discourse (Columbia/Hurst)

    Sert Kapak
    Religion as an analytical category doesn't lend itself to the reexamination and reinvention of tradition, especially in Islam, where the lines demarcating religion, culture, civilization, and politics are kept deliberately ambiguous. Religion in Modern Islamic Discourse examines the place of religion in debates and discussions from the nineteenth century to the present. Abdulkader Tayob follows the transformation of Islamic discourse, both in its adaptation and resistance to modernity. Tayob focuses on the efforts by intellectuals to reconcile Islam with the forces of modernization. He begins in Egypt and colonial India, closely reading works on the essence of religion and its social value. He then explores key contributions on identity, state, law, and gender. Tayob's analysis reveals the deep structural foundations of Islam's approach to religion, religious values, and spirituality, providing an unusually creative perspective on the evolution of its modern discourse.
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