Reference Books

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  • Collins English for Exams-Speaking for IELTS + 2 CDs

    Karton Kapak
    If your speaking is preventing you from getting the score you need in IELTS, Collins Speaking for IELTS can help. Don’t let one skill hold you back. Collins Speaking for IELTS has been specially created for learners of English who plan to take the IELTS exam to demonstrate that they have the required ability to communicate effectively in English, either at work or at university. What is IELTS? The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is sat by over 1.4 million candidates around the world every year. It is the most common test used by universities for foreign students to prove their language level. IELTS is also increasingly used for immigration purposes, with Australia, New Zealand and Canada all requiring visa applicants whose first language is not English to submit an IELTS grade. The system tests candidates’ Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking in four separate papers. Usually, students must gain a good mark in all four skills in order to gain entry to the course, job, or country of their choice. For this reason, candidates will often sit the exam numerous times to secure the score that they need. Powered by COBUILD The 4-billion-word Collins corpus is the world’s largest database of the English language. It is updated every month and has been at the heart of Collins COBUILD for over 20 years.
    72,16  TL82,00  TL
  • Analysis to Synthesis: The Development of Complex Verb Morphology in the Dravidian Languages

    Sert Kapak
    Analysis to Synthesis introduces the process of Compound Verb Contraction to analyze the genesis of synthetic verb forms in the Dravidian languages. Contraction provides an explanation for their development from analytic forms by creating a paradigm of historical evolution that utilizes the formal and functional attributes of both the earlier and later forms. Triggered by a variety of different factors, Contraction guides the evolution of complex verb forms by using markedness relations to correlate their morphological, syntactic, and lexical dimensions. An original work in comparative Dravidian linguistics,Analysis to Synthesis provides etymologies for fifteen conjugations which have hitherto resisted explanation. All fifteen show the same general development, allowing us to extract a common historical pattern and clarify the reconstruction of Proto-Dravidian typology. Thanks to Contraction, the verb morphology and syntax of the protolanguage, as well as its lexical structure, are shown to exhibit a relatively analytic structure. Because it correlates general dimensions of linguistic structure, Contraction may readily be applied to languages beyond the Dravidian family. Detailed and closely argued, this study provides a model for the analysis of similar forms in other languages and language families.
    11,91  TL170,10  TL
  • Language: The Cultural Tool

    Sert Kapak
    A bold and provocative study that presents language not as an innate component of the brain—as most linguists do—but as an essential tool unique to each culture worldwide. For years, the prevailing opinion among academics has been that language is embedded in our genes, existing as an innate and instinctual part of us. But linguist Daniel Everett argues that, like other tools, language was invented by humans and can be reinvented or lost. He shows how the evolution of different language forms—that is, different grammar—reflects how language is influenced by human societies and experiences, and how it expresses their great variety. For example, the Amazonian Pirahã put words together in ways that violate our long-held under-standing of how language works, and Pirahã grammar expresses complex ideas very differently than English grammar does. Drawing on the Wari’ language of Brazil, Everett explains that speakers of all languages, in constructing their stories, omit things that all members of the culture understand. In addition, Everett discusses how some cultures can get by without words for numbers or counting, without verbs for “to say” or “to give,” illustrating how the very nature of what’s important in a language is culturally determined. Combining anthropology, primatology, computer science, philosophy, linguistics, psychology, and his own pioneering—and adventurous—research with the Amazonian Pirahã, and using insights from many different languages and cultures, Everett gives us an unprecedented elucidation of this society-defined nature of language. In doing so, he also gives us a new understanding of how we think and who we are.
    13,31  TL63,39  TL
  • Katzen

    Sert Kapak
    Sehen - Staunen - Wissen in neuem GewandDie schönsten und interessantesten Arten mit ihren großartigen Fähigkeiten und hoch entwickelten Sinnesleistungen werden hier vorgestellt: von den Säbelzahnkatzen der Eiszeit über Großkatzen wie Tiger, Jaguar oder Löwe bis zu den heutigen Hauskatzenrassen. Typische Verhaltensweisen wie das wohlige Schnurren, die sorgfältige Fellpflege oder ihre Art, Beute zu machen, werden ebenso gezeigt wie ihre Fortpflanzung, "Katzenkinderstuben" oder die Mythen und Märchen, die sich in aller Welt um diese faszinierenden Tiere ranken.
    12,52  TL62,60  TL
  • Printing the Middle Ages (Material Texts)

    Sert Kapak
    In Printing the Middle Ages Siân Echard looks to the postmedieval, postmanuscript lives of medieval texts, seeking to understand the lasting impact on both the popular and the scholarly imaginations of the physical objects that transmitted the Middle Ages to the English-speaking world. Beneath and behind the foundational works of recovery that established the canon of medieval literature, she argues, was a vast terrain of books, scholarly or popular, grubby or beautiful, widely disseminated or privately printed. By turning to these, we are able to chart the differing reception histories of the literary texts of the British Middle Ages. For Echard, any reading of a medieval text, whether past or present, amateur or academic, floats on the surface of a complex sea of expectations and desires made up of the books that mediate those readings. Each chapter of Printing the Middle Ages focuses on a central textual object and tells its story in order to reveal the history of its reception and transmission. Moving from the first age of print into the early twenty-first century, Echard examines the special fonts created in the Elizabethan period to reproduce Old English, the hand-drawn facsimiles of the nineteenth century, and today's experiments with the digital reproduction of medieval objects; she explores the illustrations in eighteenth-century versions ofGuy of Warwick and Bevis of Hampton; she discusses nineteenth-century children's versions of theCanterbury Tales and the aristocratic transmission history of John Gower's Confessio Amantis; and she touches on fine press printings of Dante, Froissart, and Langland.
    52,35  TL158,64  TL